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Directive Interviewing. Despite its advantages, non-directive interviewing is not usually very efficient at getting around to what you most want to know. You nearly always need some specific questions to set the topic or to follow up or clarify.
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For example imagine that you are eliciting a life history and have reached the school years. You might say, "I'd like to start by learning a little about what your school was like when you lived there. Did you have any special friends among them? Sustaining Flow. Most informants prove pretty talkative if they are on a topic they both know and care about.
Some people have higher tolerance for pauses in a conversation than other people do. The fact that your informant stops talking for a time doesn't necessarily mean you should move on right away. It may be no more than a normal pause to organize what to say next.
Then again, it may be that the infrormant thinks the subject is finished and needs a little nudge if you want more detail. Being aware that there are personal and cultural differences is the first step to treating the situation productively. Actual lags in the conversation are opportunities. Sometimes an informant has said something provocative but somewhat beside the point at the time. If so, you may want to shift to that topic when the conversation seems to run down later.
Why was that? As an attentive interviewer you may wish to return when opportunity presents itself. Biased Questions. We all know that how a question is worded can affect the answer. That is why the opposite of "right to life" is "right to choose" when both phrases refer to the legalization of abortion, or why "freedom of religion" is sometimes a code word for opposition to "gay rights. If you do an opinion poll —which is not ethnographic interviewing— this is a particularly severe problem because there is not usually enough redundancy in answers for the bias to be evident.
With opinion polls, intended for hundreds or thousands of respondents, it is possible to pretest alternate wordings of questions. In ethngraphic, one-on one, unique interviews, that is not possible. However the interviewer still needs to be very alert to exactly how a question is being posed. Linguistic Interviewing. Technical analysis of language features requires quite different interview techniques from the ethnographic ones discussed here.
But less technical sociolinguistic topics arise in anthropology courses, and they necessarily involve observation of speech patterns. Often this does not involve formal interviewing, and actually may require unobtrusive observation of public behavior. For example, you may hang out in a coffee house and notice how many times women, as against men, address each other as "you guys" because you want to know whether the usage is gender-tagged, and if so, how much. Or you may wonder what proportion of the time the word "dude" is accompanied by a warning or word of advice. Sometimes what you need is a sample of sustained speech from a single informant or a series of single informants.
For example, some people do and some do not change the pronunciation of "the" depending upon whether the following word starts with a vowel "thuh" goose as opposed to "thee" elephant , and you wonder making the change correlates with age, dialect, social class, or gender. What is needed here is a speech sample, not particular content; but it is usually critical that the speech be unselfconscious; the interviewee must not be focusing on speech and speaking, but on the context and content.
Even if you tell the informant you are interested in the way people express themselves, you can't say exactly what you are looking at until afterward, since that would produce a self-consciousness that would almost certainly distort the data you are trying to collect. You need to find a way in which the informant is happy to give you as long a speech sample as you need, while not knowing exactly what you are looking for in it. This is usually not difficult, but it is important to be attentive to keeping the speech spontaneous. It is also important that the interviewee understand that you are interested in speech and are trying to collect a completely natural sample.
Each pair of students determines two topics to discuss in the interview. The interviewer should know little about the topic they will interview their partner about. Some example topics would be growing up in a large family, living in a small town, travel, playing a sport, playing an instrument, holding a certain type of job, etc. Once topics are chosen, take a few minutes to develop a couple of thoughtful, open-ended relevant questions to start the interview. While students are interviewing each other, walk around the classroom to see if they need assistance and to provide guidance.
Have the students consider: - What did you learn? An in-depth project would be highly beneficial for future TESOL teachers, especially if they were interviewing students who succeeded or failed to learn English as a second language.http://pierreducalvet.ca/203335.php
Five Simple Steps for Helping Students Write Ethnographic Papers | Teaching Culture
I value the compact nature of the activity, as it allows students the opportunity to experience and use research methods. I know, however, that students would benefit from a more in-depth project and would like to incorporate the short-term project discussed above into the next class in which it fits.
Overall, they appreciated the opportunity to engage with fellow students about a personal cultural experience and enjoyed sharing their findings with the class. Allen, Linda Quinn. DOI: Bloomaert, Jan, and Dong Jie. Multilingual Matters, Briggs, Charles L. Cambridge University Press, Morgan, Patrick. Teaching Culture: Perspectives in Oractice.
Sangasubana, Nisaratana. This cannot be completed in one interview, however, the methodology of informal interviews and open-ended questions can be utilized to ask thoughtful questions in order to open a dialogue and better understand another person, their culture, and their background.
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The qualitative research approach does not begin with a hypothesis to be proven or disproved -- a…… [Read More]. Role of Gender in Academic. This raises the question of the extent to which this particular qualitative methodology is successful in terms of large generalizations. In general, the qualitative method of data acquisition and research has many advantages over the more restrictive and rigid quantitative methodologies. Qualitative research seeks a more in-depth and holistic view of the subject and is particularly well suited in terms of taking account of the plethora of variables that may occur in the process of investigation.
Quantitative research on the other hand is usually bounded by questions of measurement and invariably starts with a predetermined set of parameters about the research and is therefore restricted in terms of its contextual and investigative potential. Qualitative research is therefore more successful in education research and the social sciences; where the subjective element and the participation of the data sample group are also taken into account.
Ethnographic Interviews: Conducting The Study
Many researchers prefer this methods as they…… [Read More]. Setting With a Focus on One Specific. This setting was selected because it offered a snapshot collection of data that could be valuable based on the outcome of the training provided by the CDP program. The researcher will conduct pre and post-interviews with the members of the EMS unit as they start and complete the program. One of the benefits of this style of approach is that it allows for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data. A mixed research study design provides the researcher with hard, numerical data on feelings, thoughts, beliefs and perceptions.
The organization benefits from this type of study because the organization can analyze through numerical data how its members actually perceive the training they receive. The data can help discover whether the training is effective or needs to be improved upon. Home Topics Science Ethnographic Essays. References Grimshaw, a. Conversations with anthropological film-makers: Melissa Llewellyn-Davies.
Cambridge: Prickly Pear Press. Grimshaw, a. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: Loizos, P. The Loita Maasai films: Televised culture" in Innovation in ethnographic film: From innocence to self-consciousness, Manchester University Press: MacDougall, D. Taylor ed. London: Routledge: Works Cited Comprehensive family assessment process.
Frese, P. Anthropology and the United States military: coming of age in the twenty-first century. Secnavinst Retrieved from doni. References Berg, Bruce L. Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences 7th edition. Analyzing Social Settings, 4th Edition.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. National Institute of Justice Prison Rape Research Findings. Work cited Cox, Taylor, Jr. Cox, Taylor, Jr. Lexington Books, pp References Coffey, A.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Dye, J. And Peskin, Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction. White Plains, NY: Longman. Goetz, M. And LeCompte, J. Ethnographic research and the problem of data reduction. Bibliography Price, Lydia J.